Third class (February 18th)


In the third class we reviewed the grammar from chapter 3 of the text and previewed grammar from chapter 4.

You should now be familiar with:

  • the grammatical ending -a for adjectives

  • how the plural endings on adjectives “agree” with their nouns, e.g. Jen unu malgranda kato kaj du grandaj hundoj.

  • the pronouns mi, vi, ni, ŝi, li, ili, and ĝi

  • the addition of ĉu to form jes/ne questions from statements

  • the “correlative” words kio / tio, kia / tia, and kiu / tiu

  • the use of the preposition de to form possessive phrases, e.g. la frato de Maria

  • the prefix mal- to make antonyms like malbela, maljuna, and malantaŭ.

  • at least some of the new words in the chapter’s vortolisto.


  1. Read chapter 4 of the text and solve the ekzercoj and demandoj. I’ll have solutions for you next week. Questions are always welcome, of course; if there’s something you don’t understand, ask!

  2. If you have time, look over chapter 1 of Gerda malaperis!, which includes grammar notes and an optional essay written with the same vocabulary list. At this point you should be able to understand the first (and possibly second) chapter with the aid of a dictionary.

Class handouts / media