Second class (February 11th)


In the second class we reviewed the grammar from chapter 2 of the text and previewed grammar from chapter 3.

You should now be familiar with:

  • the grammatical endings -o and -j (and what they’re for)

  • the present-tense verb ending -as and how a verb like fumas can mean either “smokes (regularly/in general)” or “is smoking (right now)” depending on context.

  • the words kiu(j) and tiu(j), and how they can be used on their own (kiu = which one/person) or as determiners (kiu hundo = which dog).

  • the direct article la and the word kaj

  • the affixes -in, -ej, and ge-

  • at least some of the new words in the chapter’s vortlisto.


  1. Read chapter 3 of the text and solve the ekzercoj and demandoj. I’ll have solutions for you next week. Questions are always welcome, of course; if there’s something you don’t understand, ask!

Class handouts / media

  • Solutions to chapter 2 (PDF file)

  • We listened to a pop song called Junaj idealistoj by Finnish group Dolchamar:

    (The album this is from, Rebela Sono, is available in our lending library.)

  • We talked about the IJK (Internacia Junulara Kongreso), the international youth congress. This summer it takes place in the Netherlands. In 2019, it was held in Liptovsky Hradok, Slovakia (English closed-captions available in the video below):

  • After introducing grammar elements from chapter 3, we were ready to make our way through the first few sections of Mazi en Gondolando (up to about 8:18):