In chapter 6 we encountered some more useful prepositions: kun, sen, and per, along with new nouns for facial features and body parts. Using a handout listing some of these we got a short lesson from visiting professor Cooper, a talented denaskulo (native speaker):
Chapter 6 also introduces a new correlative: kiom, which can be used to ask “what number?” Most often we’ll see kiom in the form kiom da…, which asks, “how much?” or “”how many (of) …?”.
In Mazi, for example, Korvaks asks things like: Kiom da floroj estas en la ĝardeno? or Kiom da arboj estas? To answer such questions, we need to be able to count. So far we’ve learned to count up to 10: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naŭ, dek. Later we’ll learn how to count up to 99 by combining these.
Chapter 7 introduces the correlative kiel, which can be used to ask “how?” or “in what manner?” Questions with kiel ask for adverbs, which in Esperanto take the grammatical ending -e. Kiel kuras hundo? —Ĝi kuras rapide! We also learn the important word ĉar (“because”).
Finally, we meet two new verb endings in addition to the familiar present tense -as: -is is for the past tense, and -os is for the future tense. As with -as, these verb endings can be used to express either simple or continuous action, depending on the context. Mi manĝis can mean “I ate” or “I was eating”.
More details can be found in this week’s grammar handout.
- Read up to chapter 8 in the textbook and study this week’s grammar handout.
Translate the following sentences into Esperanto:
- How much are three plus (“and”) four?
- How many young people are in the house?
- The bald man (“the man without hair”) went to the city without a hat (ĉapelo).
- We hear with our ears.
- We speak with our mouths.
- What do we do with our feet?
- With our feet, we run!
- What are you writing with? (“With what are you writing?”)
- I’m writing with a pen.
- I wasn’t writing yesterday because I didn’t have a pencil.
- Where are you?
- I’m standing behind the tree!
- Where were you yesterday?
- I was in the city.
- Were you with Maria?
- What day is today?
- Today is Monday, and tomorrow will be Tuesday.
- What will you be doing tomorrow?
- What were you doing ten minutes ago? (Hint: see page 32)
- What will you be doing five hours from now?
- How are you? (“How do you fare?”)
- Today I’m resting (ripozas), but tomorrow I’ll run quickly.
- Grandfather runs slowly, because he is old.
- On pages 29 and 34, fill in the missing parts of the sections titled Kompletigu and answer the questions in the sections titled Respondu.
Send your answers via email to hoss at lodestone dot org or bring them to class next week.