Utila vortaro por komencantoj
A useful dictionary for beginners

ReVo estas ĝis nun la plej ampleksa kaj utila Esperanto-vortaro en la reto. Ĝi ne nur difinas milojn da radikoj en Esperanto, sed ĝi enhavas ankaŭ ekvivalentajn vortojn en pluraj aliaj lingvoj. La interfacon, tamen, oni ne kreis por komencantoj. Ekzemple se oni ne jam scias kiel analizi kunmetitan vorton, foje povas esti iom malfacile trovi ĝian difinon.

Lastatempe aperis La Simpla Vortaro, inteligenta interfaco al ReVo. Ĝi ebligas serĉon per la x-metodo (ekz. tajpante “ĝ” per “gx”) kaj la serĉilo aŭtomate analizas vortojn, divenante iliajn elementojn. Ĝi eĉ toleras misliterumadon per “malpreciza serĉo”. Mojosege.

Provu ĝin!

So far, ReVo is the most extensive and useful Esperanto dictionary online. It not only defines thousands of Esperanto roots, but it also contains equivalent terms in several other languages. However the user interface to ReVo was not created for beginners. If you don’t already know how to analyze a compound word, for example, it can sometimes be difficult to find its definition.

A recent arrival is La Simpla Vortaro, an intelligent interface to ReVo. It enables easy searches using the “x method” (e.g. by typing “gx” for “ĝ”) and the search engine automatically segments words into their component parts. It even tolerates misspellings via a “fuzzy search”. Very cool.

Give it a try!


Class notes and homework, Mar 21

Handouts

Notoj

In class we covered parts of chapters 8 and 9, including the endings -i and -u, and we talked about how to use the comparative pli and the superlative plej.

We also went over examples of how to use the preposition da, which we first saw in expressions like kiom da…. We use da to refer to a quantity:

galjono da benzino a gallon of gasoline
funto da sukero a pound of sugar
tuno da karbo a ton of coal

When translating from English, the choice of da or de can sometimes be confusing. Should “a glass of water” be glaso da akvo or glaso de akvo? It’s a subtle distinction. The answer depends on whether we’re focusing on the glass itself, or on the amount of water in that glass. The preposition de simply describes what’s in the glass, whereas da focuses on the amount of water the glass holds — as if someone had asked us “how much water?”

In English this distinction is sometimes made by the addition of -ful:

glaso de akvo a glass of water
glaso da akvo a glassful of water

Kio estas tio, sur la tablo? —Tio estas glaso de akvo.
Kiom da akvo vi trinkis? —Mi trinkis glason da akvo.

Poste, ni vidis la trian parton de Mazi en Gondolando:

Kaj ni aŭskultis la kanton “Jen”:

And here’s a cover version, sung by Ĵomart kaj Nataŝa:

Hejmtasko

  • Legu ĉapitrojn naŭ kaj dek en la libro de Marček. For the sections marked with a book icon, try reading through these once quickly; then read through a second time, translating into English as you go; and finally read them once more, slowly, making sure you understand everything.
  • On page 45, translate the story “Nia familio” into English. In Esperanto, answer the questions in the section Respondu and fill in the blanks in the section Kompletigu.
  • Skribu tiujn ĉi numerojn per ciferoj (“digits”): dek ok, cent dek du, dudek sep, ducent kvardek kvin, okcent unu, mil naŭcent naŭdek naŭ.
  • Skribu tiujn ĉi ciferojn per vortoj (“words”): 114, 504, 17, 1984, 321, 888, 2011, 678, 1776.

Send your answers via email to hoss at lodestone dot org or bring them to class next week.


Konversaciaj rondoj rekomenciĝasConversation circles starting up again

Post longa paŭzo, niaj semajnaj konversaciaj rondoj baldaŭ rekomenciĝos. Ekde venontsemajne, ni kunvenos ĵaŭde je 12h30 – 1h30 en la supra nivelo de ITS. Ĉiuj estas bonvenaj; simple serĉu la krokodileton. :) Kaj ne timu se vi estas komencanto: ni parolas ankaŭ la anglan!

After a long delay, our weekly conversation circles will soon be starting up again. Starting next week, we’ll be meeting on Thursdays from 12:30 – 1:30 in upper ITS. All are welcome; just look for the small crocodile. :) And don’t worry if you’re a beginner: we speak English, too!


Choosing an Esperanto name

In a few weeks we’ll start corresponding with penpals overseas. This brings us to a dilemma often faced by new students: “How do I write my name in Esperanto?!”

Names should ideally end in -o to be both grammatical (since they’re nouns) and pronounceable when the ending -n is needed. But sometimes a final -o is undesirable—especially in cultures that reserve the “o” sound for male names. For example, an Italian named Maria probably doesn’t want to be known in Esperanto as Mario! Thus it isn’t uncommon to see female names in Esperanto ending in -a: Silvja, Maria, Klara, etc.

In general, there are three methods used to convert names for use in Esperanto. We’ll use the English name Charles as an example:

  1. “Translation” to an established Esperanto equivalent: CharlesKarlo
  2. Transliteration of the name’s pronunciation using Esperanto’s spelling system: CharlesĈarlz
  3. No change. The name is left untouched, with the possible addition of pronunciation hints in brackets: Charles [ĉarlz]. This method is used only for names already written in the Roman alphabet, and then only when the native spelling makes at least some sense in Esperanto.

Since the last two methods don’t guarantee a final -o, any grammatical endings are added as needed. In writing, we add these endings after a dash, e.g.: “Charles vidis min, kaj mi vidis Charles-on.”

So what should you use for your name? That’s up to you. Some students take the opportunity to adopt a new name, specifically for use in Esperanto. (C’mon, haven’t you always wanted a secret identity?)

To give you an idea of the many possibilities, here’s a sampling of historical and literary names in Esperanto—some common, some exotic:

Female names (many can have either -a or -o endings):
Ada, Adelo, Adriana, Agato, Alberta, Aleksandra, Alico, Amelio, Anabelo, Andrea, Anita, Anjo, Anĝela, Aprilo, Ariana, Aŭdreo, Barb(a)ra, Beatrico, Belindo, Berta, Brigito, Cecilio, Celestina, Cintio, Ĉarloto, Dafneo, Daniela, Debora, Diana, Dora, Doriso, Doroteo, Edito, Eleonoro, Eliza, Elizabeto, Elvira, Elza, Emilia, Emma, Erika, Etelo, Eva, Fatima, Filiso, Flor(enc)o, Franciska, Freja, Frida, Gabriela, Gerda, Gertrudo, Greta, Gvendolino, Ĝojo, Halina, Hedvigo, Heleno, Heloiza, Henrieto, Hermiono, Hiacinto, Hilda, Ida, Ilona, Ina, Irina, Iriso, Izabela, Jakelino, Jasmeno, Jocelino, Johana, Jolanda, Judita, Julia, Junio, Karena, Karla, Karmeno, Katia, Katlino, Katrina, Klara, Kleopatra, Konstancia, Kordelio, Kristina, Larisa, Laŭra, Lea, Lidia, Liza, Lucia, Lucilo, Luiza, Magda, Majo, Margareto, Maria, Marlena, Marta, Matilda, Miĥaela, Mira, Mirando, Mona, Monika, Moniko, Nadja, Nastazja, Nataŝa, Nikola, Nina, Nora, Oksana, Olga, Olivo, Pamela, Paŭla, Penelopeo, Petra, Raĥelo, Rebeka, Renata, Rita, Roksana, Roz(ali)o, Roza, Sabina, Sandra, Sara, Sibilo, Sofia, Sonja, Stefanio, Suzana, Talia, Tamara, Tanja, Tatjana, Terezo, Tina, Ulrika, Ursulo, Valerio, Vanesa, Ver(onik)o, Viktoria, Vilma, Viol(et)o, Virginio
Male names:
Arono, Adamo, Alano, Alberto, Aleks(andr)o, Alfredo, Andreo, Anton(i)o, Arnoldo, Arturo, Aŭgusto, Benedikto, Benjameno, Bernardo, Bertrando, Boriso, Bruno, Cecilo, Cezaro, Cirilo, Danielo, Davido, Denizo, Dimitro, Djego, Dominiko, Donaldo, Duglaso, Edgaro, Edmundo, Edvardo, Edveno, Eriko, Ernesto, Eŭgeno, Felikso, Filipo, Francisko, Franko, Frederiko, Gabrielo, Gastono, Georgo, Gilberto, Gregoro, Gustavo, Ĝeraldo, Ĝermano, Ĝilo, Haroldo, Hektoro, Henriko, Herberto, Horacio, Hu(m)berto, Hugo, Ivano, Ivo, Jakobo, Jano, Jeremio, Johano, Josuo, Jozefo, Julio, Justeno, Kar(o)lo, Kazimiro, Keneto, Klarenco, Knuto, Konrado, Kristoforo, Ladislao, Laŭr(enc)o, Leonardo, Leopoldo, Luko, Makso, Manuelo, Marcelo, Mario, Marko, Marteno, Mateo, Miĥaelo, Natano, Nestoro, Nikolao, Norman(d)o, Olivero, Omaro, Oskaro, Osvaldo, Patriko, Paŭlo, Percevalo, Petro, Rafaelo, Ralfo, Raulo, Rikardo, Roberto, Rolando, Rolfo, Ronaldo, Roĝero, Rudolfo, Samuelo, Serĝo, Sidneo, Silvestro, Sim(e)ono, Stefano, Tadeo, Teodoro, Tiberio, Timoteo, Tomaso, Ulriko, Umberto, Vaclavo, Valtero, Viktoro, Vilhelmo, Vladimiro, Volfgango, Zaĥario

Class notes and homework, Mar 14

Notoj

Bonvenon denove al Roĉestro! Ĉu vi ĝuis la feriojn?

In class we covered chapter 7 and went over the homework solutions, including the solutions to the translation challenge.

We also skipped ahead a bit, talking about the particle ĉi, which can be used with correlative words like tio, tiu and tie to indicate proximity:

tiothat thing
ĉi tiothis thing
tiuthat one/person
ĉi tiuthis one/person
tiethat place (there)
ĉi tiethis place (here)

ĉi can appear either before or after the word it modifies: Tio ĉi = Ĉi tio.

We also learned how to make numbers greater than 10:

11dek unu
12dek du
13dek tri
20dudek
21dudek unu
22dudek du
23dudek tri
30tridek
40kvardek
50kvindek
99naŭdek naŭ

This prepared us for part 2 of Mazi en Gondolando, which begins at 7:40 in the first video below and continues all the way through the second:

Hejmtasko

  • Legu ĉapitrojn ok kaj naŭ en la libro de Marček. For the sections marked with a book icon, try reading through these once quickly; then read through a second time, translating into English as you go; and finally read them once more, slowly, making sure you understand everything.
  • On page 39, answer the questions in the section Respondu. Translate the text in the section Legu into English.
  • Translate the following sentences into Esperanto:
    1. Open the window, please (mi petas).
    2. Please give me a glass of lemonade.
    3. Do you want to eat now?
    4. No thanks. I want to eat, but I can’t.
    5. Don’t you like chocolate? (“Do you not like chocolate?”)
    6. Yes, I like to eat it, but I’m full.
    7. Why are you full?
    8. Because I ate apples fifteen minutes ago.
    9. How many apples did you eat?
    10. Eleven or twelve… I ate a lot (“many”) of apples!
    11. Tomorrow I’ll go to a restaurant (restoracio) with my grandparents.
    12. Are your siblings (“brother(s) and sister(s)”) going too?
    13. No, I don’t have siblings.

Send your answers via email to hoss at lodestone dot org or bring them to class next week.


Marček en ĈilioMarček in Chile

Se vi iam maltrankviliĝis laŭtlegi dialogojn el la lernolibro dum nia kurso, kuraĝiĝu: vi almenaŭ ne solas! Jen filmeto de studantoj en Ĉilio, kiuj laŭtlegas dialogojn el la dua ĉapitro. (“Maria, kie estas la libro? —La libro estas sur la tablo!” ktp.)

Ĝis nun oni jam tradukis la lernolibron de Marček en 22 lingvojn, kaj ĝin uzas studantoj tra la tuta mondo. Espereble ni baldaŭ korespondos kun kelkaj el ili…

In case you’ve ever felt awkward about acting out dialogues from the textbook in class, take comfort: at least you’re not alone! Here’s a clip of Esperanto students in Chile, reading dialogues from chapter 2. (“Maria, kie estas la libro? —La libro estas sur la tablo!” etc.)

The Marček textbook has been translated into over 22 languages so far, and is used by students all over the world. We’ll hopefully be corresponding with some of them soon…



Class notes and homework, Feb 28

Notoj

In chapter 6 we encountered some more useful prepositions: kun, sen, and per, along with new nouns for facial features and body parts. Using a handout listing some of these we got a short lesson from visiting professor Cooper, a talented denaskulo (native speaker):

Chapter 6 also introduces a new correlative: kiom, which can be used to ask “what number?” Most often we’ll see kiom in the form kiom da…, which asks, “how much?” or “”how many (of) …?”.

In Mazi, for example, Korvaks asks things like: Kiom da floroj estas en la ĝardeno? or Kiom da arboj estas? To answer such questions, we need to be able to count. So far we’ve learned to count up to 10: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naŭ, dek. Later we’ll learn how to count up to 99 by combining these.

Chapter 7 introduces the correlative kiel, which can be used to ask “how?” or “in what manner?” Questions with kiel ask for adverbs, which in Esperanto take the grammatical ending -e. Kiel kuras hundo? —Ĝi kuras rapide! We also learn the important word ĉar (“because”).

Finally, we meet two new verb endings in addition to the familiar present tense -as: -is is for the past tense, and -os is for the future tense. As with -as, these verb endings can be used to express either simple or continuous action, depending on the context. Mi manĝis can mean “I ate” or “I was eating”.

More details can be found in this week’s grammar handout.

Hejmtasko

  • Read up to chapter 8 in the textbook and study this week’s grammar handout.
  • Translate the following sentences into Esperanto:
    1. How much are three plus (“and”) four?
    2. How many young people are in the house?
    3. The bald man (“the man without hair”) went to the city without a hat (ĉapelo).
    4. We hear with our ears.
    5. We speak with our mouths.
    6. What do we do with our feet?
    7. With our feet, we run!
    8. What are you writing with? (“With what are you writing?”)
    9. I’m writing with a pen.
    10. I wasn’t writing yesterday because I didn’t have a pencil.
    11. Where are you?
    12. I’m standing behind the tree!
    13. Where were you yesterday?
    14. I was in the city.
    15. Were you with Maria?
    16. What day is today?
    17. Today is Monday, and tomorrow will be Tuesday.
    18. What will you be doing tomorrow?
    19. What were you doing ten minutes ago? (Hint: see page 32)
    20. What will you be doing five hours from now?
    21. How are you? (“How do you fare?”)
    22. Today I’m resting (ripozas), but tomorrow I’ll run quickly.
    23. Grandfather runs slowly, because he is old.
  • On pages 29 and 34, fill in the missing parts of the sections titled Kompletigu and answer the questions in the sections titled Respondu.

Send your answers via email to hoss at lodestone dot org or bring them to class next week.


La vojaĝoj de AndyAndy’s travels

Last week we had a visit from Andy Rosenbaum, Esperantist extraordinaire from the University of Florida. In 2009, Andy made extensive use of the Pasporta Servo in his travels across Europe, and in class last week he talked a bit about his experiences. If you’d like to learn more, the trip was thoroughly documented in English (with lots of pretty pictures!) on his friend Jordan’s blog, The World of Stuff.